- OCT is a powerful tool for assessing the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous eyes. It has the ability to visualise
tissure cross-sections both qualitatively and quantitatively, to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue and to evaluate
The early diagnosis of glaucoma and the early detection of glaucomatous progression are twin central challenges facing ophthalmologists.
Since glaucomatous damage is irreversible, prevention of this injury before it occurs is the essential strategy available
to those treating this disease.
Standard Automated Perimetry, (SAP) unarguably the gold standard to evaluate glaucomatous neuropathy and to monitor disease
progression has poor sensitivity for detecting glaucoma. Quigley and co workers1 showed that significant axonal loss may precede the development of visual field defect and identifiable cupping. Since the
test requires subjective input, it is therefore prone to short and long term fluctuation. Subsequently, there is clearly a
compelling need for more sensitive glaucoma diagnostic tests.
Work during the past two decades has resulted in the development and implementation of several imaging technologies designed
to detect glaucomatous neuropathy at early stages of the disease. The Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a powerful tool
for assessing the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous eyes. It has the ability to visualize tissue cross-sections
both qualitatively and quantitatively, to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue and to evaluate disease progression.
Figure 1: After seven months.
A healthy retina is only a quarter of a millimetre thick, but it contains multiple layers of specialized transparent cells.
One layer converts light into nerve signals, another layer processes the nerve impulses, while another layer transmits these
organised impulses to the brain where they are interpreted. The Stratus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec) provides diagnostic visualization,
measurement, documentation and comparison of the thicknesses of these layers.
Figure 2: HVF was within normal limits.
It could be useful in detecting pre-perimetric glaucoma, thereby allowing earlier commencement of treatment and preventing
visual loss. In addition, monitoring of glaucoma progression with OCT over an extended period of time could arrest continued
injury to the optic nerve.
Figure 3: After nine months.
Circular OCT tomograms are acquired around the Optic disc at 2.3 mm and 3.4 mm diameters. Cylindrical sections are displayed
unwrapped and correspond to a clockwise scan around the disc. In our two studies we used the 3.4 mm Fast RNFL scan.
Figure 4: After 27 months.
•The first was a two year study, conducted where RNFL assessment in glaucoma suspects was correlated to Short Wave Automated
•The second was over five years and was conducted with 532 eyes where RNFL assessment was correlated to Standard Automated
The two-year study, which started with 132 eyes of glaucoma suspects converted to SWAP changes (p<0.01) in an average lead
time of 7.6 months with a positive predictive value of 72%.
The five-year study began with 232 eyes of glaucoma suspects which went on to 532 eyes in five years and a statistically significant
number (p<0.01) converted to Standard Automated Perimetry changes in an average lead time of 36.2 months with a positive predictive
value of 76%
In addition, the locations of the RNFL changes corresponded closely with the regions of the visual field where the defects